Banff Sport Medicine Foundation – Research

Mission Statement/Vision:

To establish an innovative environment that supports and facilitates leading-edge bone and joint research in a community setting. The Banff Sport Medicine Foundation, in collaboration with research partners and organizations, will enhance clinical care, patient education and the overall quality of life for people with bone and joint disease by designing, researching and implementing evidence-based medicine.

What we are working on:

If you would like more information or would like to donate, please contact us:

  • Phone: 403-760-2897 Ext 6
  • Fax: 403-760-8234
  • Email Us
  • ​​​Banff Sport Medicine Foundation, PO Box 1300 Banff, Alberta, Canada T1L 1B3

Research Team Members

We are a team of clinicians actively conducting clinical research

Dr. Laurie Hiemstra

Dr. Laurie Hiemstra

Laurie has published over 30 peer-reviewed research manuscripts, as well as numerous invited articles and book chapters. In addition to her medical and surgical training, Laurie completed a PhD. in neuromuscular physiology in 2003.

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Laurie’s current research is primarily focussed on Patella Instability including diagnostic accuracy, surgical techniques, rehabilitation, and functional outcomes. In 2014 she was awarded the ISAKOS Patellofemoral Traveling Fellowship and she is a member of the International Patellofemoral Study Group. Laurie is highly involved in teaching nationally and internationally as an expert in her field.  She is also a Clinical Associate Professor at the University of Calgary. Laurie’s additional research interests include ACL reconstruction surgical techniques, biomechanics and functional outcomes; and, neuromuscular control following knee injury.
Dr. Mark Heard

Dr. Mark Heard

Mark is a Clinical Associate Professor at the University of Calgary, and he is the Fellowship director at BSM. Mark teaches nationally and internationally, and he is an expert instructor for the AANA comprehensive knee course. Mark’s main area of research interest is outcomes following knee ligament reconstruction.

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His current research projects include ACL reconstruction surgical techniques, assessing indicators of return to sport readiness, and the influence of secondary pathology on patient function after surgery. Mark has also written two book chapters focussed on PCL Reconstruction and PLC Instability. Mark’s other research interests include live articular cartilage transplantation, outcomes in isolated osteochondral defects, and, the effect of bony defects on surgical selection and outcomes in shoulder instability.
Dr. Greg Buchko

Dr. Greg Buchko

Greg’s primary research interest is outcomes following ACL, PCL and multi-ligament knee reconstruction. Greg’s areas of research interest include the factors that influence surgical outcomes as well as assessment for return to sport following ACL and PCL reconstruction; predictors of success after meniscal repair; and surgical treatment and functional outcomes for shoulder instability.

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Greg has been involved in teaching the Emergency Medicine for rural hospitals fracture management for over 10 years, and he is a key member of the Fellowship training programme at BSM. Greg presents provincially and nationally, and recently presented on outcomes and function after ACL reconstruction, as well as the evidence for return to sport timelines after ACL surgery.
Dr. Michaela Kopka

Dr. Michaela Kopka

Michaela has been involved in the conduct and publication of research over the past 10 years. Her research has investigated the diagnostic accuracy of MRI compared with clinician assessment of knee injuries, as well as the reliability of x-ray for bone loss in shoulder instability.

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Michaela also recently co-authored a book chapter with Dr. Heard on the surgical management of combined PCL and PLC injuries. Currently her main areas of research interest are patient-reported and functional outcomes following partial ACL tears; PCL and multi-ligament surgical approaches and return to activity; and the evidence for and outcomes of osteotomies around the knee.
Sarah Kerslake

Sarah Kerslake

Research Director

Current Research Projects

  • Failure rate and Risky anatomy following isolated MPFL-R and MPFL-I.
  • Influence of Generalised Joint Hypermobility on Outcomes following MPFL Reconstruction.
  • The Influence of Patella Alta on Outcomes following Isolated MPFL reconstruction for Patellar Instability.
  • Relationship between positive Clinical Laxity Tests and Disease-specific Quality of Life 2-years following Anatomic Hamstring Tendon ACL Reconstruction.
  • Outcomes of Combined ACL Reconstruction and MCL Surgery compared with Isolated ACL Reconstruction: A Matched Cohort study.
  • Outcomes of Revision ACL Reconstruction compared with Primary ACL Reconstruction: A Matched Cohort study.
  • Initial Validity, Reliability and Responsiveness of the ACL-QOL in Paediatric Patients.
  • Validity and Reliability of Physical Exam in Recurrent Patellofemoral Instability.
  • Initial Validity and Reliability of the Banff Patella Instability Instrument in Paediatric Patients.
  • Concurrent Validity, Reliability and Responsiveness of the BPII 2.0 in Paediatric Patients.
  • Inter-rater Reliability of Functional Testing following ACL-R and MPFL-R.
  • Assessing the Validity and Reliability of Femoral Tunnel Placement following Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction: Palpation versus Fluoroscopy.
  • Demographic and Anatomic Factors associated with Patellar Instability – A Survey of Patellofemoral Instability Experts
  • The influence of Age and Sex on Outcomes of Isolated MFPL reconstruction for Recurrent Patellofemoral Instability.
  • Sillanpaa, P, Hiemstra LA, Kerslake S, Lafave MR. Analysis of Rate and Causes of Failure following MPFL Reconstruction
  • Gait Mechanics and Characteristics in Patients presenting with Recurrent Patellofemoral Instability compared with Controls.
  • Randomised Clinical Trial of Patellar Bracing for Patellofemoral Instability: Changes in Gait Mechanics.
  • Current Treatment of the First Time Patellofemoral Dislocation – A Survey of the International Patellofemoral Study Group (IPSG).
  • The Influence Of Risky Pathoanatomy on Clinical Outcomes After Isolated MPFL-R Reconstruction – A Regression Analysis.
  • Assessment of Clinical, Functional and Patient-reported Outcomes 2-Years following Anatomic Hamstring Tendon ACL Reconstruction.
  • Outcomes of Partial ACL Reconstruction compared with Primary ACL Reconstruction: A Matched Cohort study.


  • Jordan MJ, Doyle-Baker P, Heard M, Aagaard P, Herzog W. A Retrospective Analysis of Concurrent Pathology in ACL-Reconstructed Knees of Elite Alpine Ski Racers. Orthop J Sports Med. 2017 Jul 10;5(7):2325967117714756.
  • Hiemstra LA, Kerslake S, Arendt EE. Clinical Rehabilitation of Anterior Knee Pain – Current Concepts. Am J Orthop 2017 Mar/Apr;46(2):82-86.
  • Hiemstra, LA, Kerslake, S. Lafave, MR. Quality-of Life Outcomes of Patients following Patellofemoral Stabilization Surgery: The influence of Trochlear Dysplasia. J Knee Surg 2017 Feb. 20
  • Hiemstra, LA, Kerslake, S. Lafave, MR. Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction Femoral Tunnel Accuracy: Relationship to Disease-Specific Quality of Life. Orthop J Sports Med 2017 Feb 7;5(2)
  • Hiemstra LA, Kerslake S, O’Brien CL, Lafave MR. Accuracy and Learning Curve of Femoral Tunnel Placement in Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction. J Knee Surg 2017 Feb. 13
  • Lafave MR, Hiemstra L, Kerslake S, Heard M, Buchko G. Validity, Reliability, and Responsiveness of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Quality of Life Measure: A Continuation of Its Overall Validation. Clin J Sport Med. 2017 Jan;27(1):57-63.
  • Hiemstra LA, Kerslake S, Heard M, Buchko G, Lafave M. Outcomes of surgical stabilization in patients with combined ACL deficiency and patellofemoral instability – A case series. Knee. 2016 Dec;23(6):1106-1111. Epub 2016 Oct 31.
  • Yeung M, Leblanc MC, Ayeni OR, Khan M, Hiemstra LA, Kerslake S, Peterson D. Indications for Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review. J Knee Surg. Oct;29(7):543-554, 2016. Epub 2015 Oct 29.
  • Hiemstra LA, Kerslake S, Lafave M. Assessment of demographic and pathoanatomic risk factors in recurrent patellofemoral instability. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. Epub 2016 Oct 7.
  • Getgood A, LaPrade RF, Verdonk P, Gersoff W, Cole B, Spalding T; IMREF Group. International Meniscus Reconstruction Experts Forum (IMREF) 2015 Consensus Statement on the Practice of Meniscal Allograft Transplantation. Am J Sports Med. 2016 Aug 25.
  • Hiemstra, LA, Kerslake, S. Loewen, M. Lafave, M. Effect of Trochlear Dysplasia on Outcomes After Isolated Soft Tissue Stabilization for Patellar Instability. Am J Sports Med. 2016 Jun;44(6):1515-23.
  • Hiemstra LA, Kerslake S, Lafave M. Factor Analysis and Item Reduction of the Banff Patella Instability Instrument (BPII): Introduction of the BPII 2.0. Am J Sports Med. 2016 44(8):2081-2086.
  • Hiemstra LA, Kerslake S, Lafave M, Mohtadi NG. Concurrent Validation of the Banff Patella Instability Instrument to the Norwich Patellar Instability Score and the Kujala Score in Patients With Patellofemoral Instability. Orthop J Sports Med. 2016 May 11;4(5).
  • Heard, SM, Heard, M. “Open Tibial Inlay Graft for Posterior Cruciate LigamentReconstruction”. Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries. A Practical Guide to Management (2nd Edition). Springer; 10: 123-136. 2015.
  • Lording, Timothy, Hiemstra, Laurie, Fink, Christian, Getgood, Alan. Strategies for Reconstruction of the Medial Patellofemoral Ligament. Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine, Volume 23, Issue 2, 87 – 94, 2015.
  • Hiemstra LA, Kerslake S, Irving C. Anterior knee pain in the athlete. Clin Sports Med. 2014 Jul;33(3):437-59.
  • Hiemstra LA, Lafave M, Kerslake S, Heard SM, Buchko GL. Introduction of a Classification System for Subjects with Patellar Instability (WARPS and STAID). Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 22(11):2776-2782, 2014.
  • Macdonald SA, Heard SM, Hiemstra LA, Buchko GM, Kerslake S, Sasyniuk TM. A Comparison of Pain Scores and Medication Use in Patients Undergoing Single-Bundle or Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. Can J Surg. Jun;57(3): E98-104, 2014.
  • Mohtadi NG, Chan DS, Hollinshead RM, Boorman RS, Hiemstra LA, Lo IK, Hannaford HN, Fredine J, Sasyniuk TM, Paolucci EO. A randomized clinical trial comparing open and arthroscopic stabilization for recurrent traumatic anterior shoulder instability: two-year follow-up with disease-specific quality-of-life outcomes. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014 Mar 5;96(5):353-60.
  • Hiemstra LA, Lafave M, Kerslake S, Mohtadi NG, Heard SM, Buchko GL. Initial Validity and Reliability of the Banff Patellar Instability Instrument. Am J Sports Med. Jul;41(7):1629-35, 2013.
  • Hiemstra LA, Sasyniuk TM. Assessing and reporting anchor performance. Arthroscopy. 2012 May;28(5):593;
  • Hiemstra LA, Heard SM, Sasyniuk TM, Buchko GL, Reed JG, Monteleone BJ. Knee immobilization for pain control after a hamstring tendon anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Sports Med. 2009 Jan;37(1):56-64. Epub 2008 Sep 18.
  • Hiemstra LA, Sasyniuk TM, Mohtadi NGH and Fick GH. Shoulder Strength After Open Versus Arthroscopic Stabilization. Am J Sports Med. 2008; 36; 861 originally published online Mar 4, 2008
  • Brandenburg MA, Butterwick DJ, Hiemstra LA, Nebergall R, Laird J. A comparison of injury rates in organized sports, with special emphasis on American bull riding. International SportMed Journal, 8(2):78-86, 2007.
  • Hiemstra LA, DJ Butterwick, R Walker. Latissimus Dorsi Tendon Ruptures in Rodeo Athletes. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. Jul;17(4):316-8, 2007.
  • Hiemstra LA, Webber S, MacDonald PB, Kriellaars DJ Contralateral limb strength deficits after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using a hamstring tendon graft. Clinical Biomechanics. Jun;22(5):543-50,2007. Epub 2007 Mar 27.
  • Butterwick DJ, Hiemstra LA, Lafave MR, and Carlyle KJ. Short-term management of biceps-tendon rupture during competition in bull riders. Athletic Therapy Today. 11(11):59-61, 2006.
  • Nigg BM, Emery C, Hiemstra LA. Unstable shoe construction and reduction of pain in osteoarthritis patients. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. Oct; 38(10):1701-8, 2006.
  • Sheps DM, Reed JG, Hildebrand KA, Hiemstra LA. Supracondylar Femur Fracture after Endoscopic Anterior Cruciate Reconstruction Using and EndoButton. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine Sep;16(5):428-9, 2006
  • Hiemstra LA, Veale K, Sasyniuk TM. Knee Immobilization in the Immediate Postoperative Period Following ACL Reconstruction: A Survey of Practice Patterns of Canadian Orthopaedic Surgeons. Clin J Sport Med. 16(3):199-202. 2006
  • Butterwick DJ, Brandenburg MA, Andrews DM, Brett K, Bugg BH, Carlyle, KJ, Freeman TR 3rd, Hiemstra L, Lafave M, Laird J, Lun V, Meyers MC, Miller C, Mohtadi N, Nebergall R, Temes RT, Teochi LF, Wiley P, Meeuwisse W; Concussion in Rodeo Group:. “Agreement Statement From the 1st International Rodeo Research and Clinical Care Conference: Calgary, Alberta, Canada (July 7-9, 2004)”. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 15(3):192-195, 2005.
  • Hiemstra LA, Gofton WT, Kriellaars DJ. “Hip Strength Following Hamstring Tendon Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction”. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 15(3):180-182, 2005.
  • Hiemstra LA, Webber S, MacDonald PB, Kriellaars DJ “Hamstring and Quadriceps Strength Balance in Normal and Hamstring ACL Reconstructed Subjects” Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 14(5):274-280, September 2004.
  • Reed J, Hiemstra LA. Anterior Compartment Syndrome Following an Achilles Tendon Repair: An Unusual Complication. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 14(4):237-241, July 2004.
  • Hiemstra LA, MacDonald, PB, Froese W. “Subacromial Infection Following Corticosteroid Injection” Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, Jan-Feb, 2003.
  • Hiemstra LA, Kirkley A. “Shoulder Instability in Female Athletes” Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review 2002;10:50-57.
  • Hiemstra LA, Lo IKY, Fowler PJ. “Effect of Fatigue on Knee Proprioception: Implications for Dynamic Stabilization.” Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 31(10), 598-605. 2001.
  • Hiemstra LA, Webber S, MacDonald PB, Kriellaars DJ. “Graft Site Dependent Knee Strength Deficits after Patellar Tendon and Hamstring Tendon ACL Reconstruction” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 32(8): 1472-1479, 2000.
  • Buchko GM, Johnson DH. Arthroscopy assisted operative management of tibial plateau fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1996 Nov;(332):29-36.

Presentations and Teaching

In an effort to improve outcomes for all patients, the BSM team is actively involved in presenting the results of their clinical research nationally and internationally. In the past year, BSM research has been presented at international conferences in North America, South America, Europe and Australia.

Some recent presentations include:

  • “Patient-reported Quality-of-Life is Lower in Patients with Graft Laxity following Hamstring Autograft ACL Reconstruction.” COA Annual Meeting, June 2018, Victoria Canada.
  • “Age at time of Surgery but not Sex is related to Outcomes after Isolated MPFL Reconstruction.” COA Annual Meeting, June 2018, Victoria Canada
  • “Surgical Approach to Posterolateral Corner Reconstruction.” COA Annual Meeting, June 2018, Victoria Canada
  • “Which Risk Factors Predict Outcome following Isolated MPFL Reconstruction? A Multivariate Regression Analysis.” APKASS & AOA Congress, June 2018, Sydney Australia.
  • “Surgical Stabilisation of the Patella: Failure Rates and Patient Risk Factors.” APKASS & AOA Congress, June 2018, Sydney Australia.
  • “Clinical Outcomes in Patella Alta and the Effect of MPFL-R on Patellar Height.” 18th ESSKA Congress, May 2018 Glasgow UK.
  • “Relationship Between Anatomical Risk Factors, Articular Cartilage Lesions, and Patient Outcomes Following Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction.” 18th ESSKA Congress, May 2018 Glasgow UK.

The BSM surgeons and physicians are actively involved in education and teaching. All team members are committed to training the next generation of health care specialists. In collaboration with the University of Calgary, the BSM surgeons provide specialty training for a surgical Fellow each year. The surgeons regularly teach surgical techniques to colleagues and trainee orthopaedic surgeons in cadaver labs via their roles with professional organisations such as AANA. The BSM team also provides evidence-based updates on the prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal injuries, with a focus on knee and shoulder instability, within their local and national networks.